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Каталог выставки
Фра Анжелико
в Музее Искусств Метрополитен
Нью-Йорк, 2005

<База Данных
предыдущая Кат. 13
Муж Скорбей со святыми
Галерея института Курто, Лондон
следующая

Предисловие

Здесь представлена один из разделов четвертой главы каталога, сопровождавшего выставку работ художника эпохи Возрождения Фра Анжелико (15 век) в Музее искусств Метрополитен в Нью-Йорке в 2005 году. Каталог составлен кураторами этой выставки Лоуренсом Кантером и Пиа Палладино.

Лоуренс Кантер
Кат. 13. Фра Анжелико: Три панели пределлы алтаря (Муж Скорбей со святыми)

Sold in 1860 with an attribution to Starnina and a putative provenance from the church of the Carmine in Florence, these three panels were recognized by Roberto Longhi in 1940 as works from Fra Angelico's early career.(*1)

Фра Анжелико. Блаженная Екатерина Сиенская и Святая Сецилия
Кат. 13A. Блаженная Екатерина Сиенская и Святая Сецилия

Темпера, дерево. 20,2 х 49,3 см. (8 х 19 3/8 дюймов)
Галерея института Курто, Лондон (Courtauld Gallery)
(Инв. ном. P1966.GP.10)

Фра Анжелико. Муж Скорбей со Святой Марией Магдалиной и Иоанном Евангелистом
Кат. 13B. Муж Скорбей со Святой Марией Магдалиной и Иоанном Евангелистом

Темпера, дерево. 20,3 х 54,83 см. (8 х 21 5/8 дюймов)
Галерея института Курто, Лондон (Courtauld Gallery)
(Инв. ном. P1966.GP.10)

Фра Анжелико. Блаженная Екатерина Сиенская и Святая Сецилия
Кат. 13C. Блаженная Екатерина Сиенская и Святая Сецилия

Темпера, дерево. 20,5 х 50,9 см. (8 1/8 х 20 дюймов)
Галерея института Курто, Лондон (Courtauld Gallery)
(Инв. ном. P1966.GP.10)

Their supposed Carmelite provenance must have been deduced from the traditional attribution to Stamina, who is known to have frescoed the Chapel of Saint Jerome in Santa Maria del Carmine. However, the inclusion of four female saints on the lateral panels and the substitution in the center panel of Saint Mary Magdalene for the Virgin, who normally occupies the space to the left of the Dead Christ in images of the Pieta or the Man of Sorrows, implies that this predella was painted for a female monastic community; that this community must have been Dominican is indicated by the prominence afforded Catherine of Siena, who was not canonized until 1461. As the style, aggregate width, and pastiglia decoration of the predella all conform to those of the San Pier Martire triptych (fig. 54), their common origin — first proposed by Umberto Baldini — seems certain. These panels, then, are the "figure piccole assai" Vasari described, when he saw the San Pier Martire triptych reinstalled in the church of San Felice in Piazza after 1557.(*2)

Фра Анжелико. Триптих Святого Петра Мученика
Рис. 54. Фра Анжелико. Триптих Святого Петра Мученика

Около 1422-23
Музей Сан Марко, Флоренция

While a reconstruction of the original situation of these panels is relatively unproblematic, their dating remains a subject of little agreement. A consensus of opinion in accepting the altarpiece itself as an autograph work by Fra Angelico was reached only after its cleaning in preparation for the centenary exhibition of 1955 in Florence. While Angelico's authorship has not been doubted since then, the range of dates proposed for this work encompasses much of the decade of the 1420s and includes the suggestion that the small painted scenes of the Preaching and Martyrdom of Saint Peter Martyr in the spandrels of the frame might have been added later, perhaps in the 144os, by Benozzo Gozzoli.(*3) On documentary grounds, the execution of the altarpiece must be confined to the period between March 1417, when land was purchased from the nuns of San Gaggio to found a convent for Dominican sisters dedicated to Saint Peter Martyr,(*4) and March 1429, when Fra Pietro di Antonio, Prior of San Domenico in Fiesole, recorded a residual payment of ten florins from "Monasteriurn Sancti Petri Martinis adhuc tenetur dare de pictura tabule sue."(*5) For Pope-Hennessy this notice implied that the altarpiece was completed only shortly before, and he accepted 1428 as its relatively firm date.(*6) In actuality, however, it is more likely that the painting, which stood on the high altar of the small church, was commissioned close to the period of the convent's founding, and that it was finished and installed not too long after 1421, when three sisters from the Pisan convent of San Domenico, Suor Margherita degli Spini, Suor Piera (widow of Niccola dell' Ossa), and Suor Maddalena di Bartolommeo di Scolaio Usimbardi, were transferred to Florence and became the first residents at San Pier Martire.(*7)

The chief obstacle in recognizing 1421 or 1422 as a terminus a quo for the execution of the San Pier Martire altarpiece has been the persistent belief that the solid modeling of the figures and the unified spatial plan of the main panels reflect the young artist's response to the example of Masaccio, and therefore could not predate 1424 at the earliest. Yet, the sequence of Angelico's earlier works, as presented in this exhibition, demonstrates the artist's interest in spatial and tactile illusion well before the advent of Masaccio. Angelico's first overt response to Masaccio's pictorial innovations appears only after the San Domenico Annunciation altarpiece (now in the Prado), of about 1425. The San Pier Martire triptych is a significantly less mature work than the latter, as is evident in the exaggerated tilt of its painted marble pavement, the disproportionately large and imperfectly foreshortened feet of the standing saints, and the slight inconsistencies in the positioning of these figures in depth relative to each other. In all these respects it resembles the larger and more complex composition of the San Domenico high altarpiece, to which it is closely related in details of the figure types as well. Probably,Angelico was called upon to execute the San Pier Martire triptych immediately following the commission for the high altarpiece for his own convent church, and it is likely that he began work on it shortly after 1421.

The choice of saints to fill the predella of the San Pier Martire triptych may have been dictated by the presence of relics donated to the church perhaps from Santa Maria Novella. All the figures portrayed here also occur on the predella to the reliquary of the Annunciation and the Adoration of the Magi now in the Museo di San Marco — one of four reliquary panels commissioned for Santa Maria Novella by Fra Giovanni Masi before 1434 (see cat. 28).

Фра Анжелико. Благовещение и Поклонение волхвов
Кат. 28. Фра Анжелико. Благовещение и Поклонение волхвов
Реликварий для Джованни Мази

Около 1430
Музей Сан Марко, Флоренция

Painted labels below the half-length figures on that predella confirm the identities of the two saints in the left-hand panel from San Pier Martire as Catherine of Siena, shown with a halo notwithstanding the fact that she would not be canonized until forty years later, and Cecilia, although she is constantly referred to as Dorothy in published references to the Courtauld panels.(*8)

Л.К.

Сноски:

(*1). Sold at Christie's, London, June 9-11, 1860, lots 32-34, from the collection of Samuel Woodburn; Christie's, London, June 12, 1863, lot 134. from the collection of the Reverend Walter Davenport-Bromley. See Longhi 1940 (1975 ed.), p. 38.

(*2). Baldini 1970, p. 86;Vasari (Milanesi ed.) 1878-85, vol. II, pp. 515-16.

(*3). M. Salmi (1950, pp. 146, 154) identifies them as by Gozzoli in the 1440s; L. Collobi-Ragghianti (1955 b, pp. 38,46 n. 5) dates them about 1420-22; Longhi (1940) dated them about 1424-25, and Longhi later noted (1960 b, p. 6o) that they were earlier than the San Domenico high altarpiece; M. Boskovits (1976 a, p. 30) dated them to the first half of the 1420s; and G. Bonsanti (1998, p. 124) dated them to 1429.

(*4). Richa 1762, vol. X, p. 202.

(*5). Orlandi 1954 a, p. 180.

(*6). Pope-Hennessy 1974, pp. 190-91

(*7). Richa 1762, vol. X, p. 204.

(*8). The fact that all the saints represented on the predella to the Santa Maria Novella reliquary are female has not previously elicited comment. While there is no evidence that it might have been painted for San Pier Martire, and only later was transferred to Santa Maria Novella where it was seen byVasari, the possibility cannot be dismissed.The first governor of San Pier Martire was Fra Andrea di Giovanni da Palaia from Santa Maria Novella, who may have brought some relics to the new church to enable the consecration of its main altar. See Richa 1762, vol. X, p. 203. Fra Andrea was succeeded by Fra Benedetto Domenichi and Fra Maestro Giovanni da Mantova, both residents of San Marco.


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